PBL Season 1 – What did they Learn?

This is a 5-6 minute read.

This post focuses on some of the learning that took place during the project.

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It is all very well and nice to have a component such as PBL as part of the curriculum. However, if the learners do not learn as a result then there is little point in putting time and effort into implementing and developing PBL.

So the question we need to ask is what did PBL bring to the learners? The following comments are based on data from many sources including feedback from learners in the more formal tutorial meetings and less formal chats, feedback from colleagues who also delivered PBL, observations of the learners as they completed the component…etc

This page focuses on learning English with following pages being devoted to the development of hard & soft skills and attitudes.

In order to keep this as brief as possible I will not mention all the linguistic and skill areas developed but will exemplify a few to give  a general idea of the learning that took place.

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English

As learners on an English language preparation course, developing their English in an academic context the first question to ask is “Did the learners improve their English?”

Well, I think the answer overall is yes. As with other parts of our content based syllabus, the daily use of English for a communicative purpose led to an improvement in their overall levels of English. I would suggest that PBL brought an increased need and motivation to communicate whether it be within the team; with the teacher or with the wider audiences of peers (for practice presentations); with members of the university as a whole during the conference presentations; or through the creation of blogs and websites to record their progress and reflections.

But let’s be more specific….

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Speaking and Listening

Many learners reported increased confidence in speaking in public and presentations as well as in private conversations.

The practice presentations delivered to their peers in other classes proved challenging and led to a great sense of achievement. This provided a nice foundation for the poster presentations during which the learners not only presented their information but responded to questions from their audience.

The learner’s perception of increased confidence is nice because it was the realistic and motivating need to communicate that provided the learners with the opportunity to use the language and skills they possessed, demonstrating to themselves and others the extent of their knowledge.

One learner, during her end of course feedback, also reported how the experience had given her confidence in delivering presentations in Turkish Language and Literature classes.

Several learners perceived connection between the development of the speaking and listening skills through PBL and increased confidence (and score) in their oral exams.

Whilst much of the work was conducted in groups, and the conversations may have been conducted in Turkish, we did ask for a part teams to record one conversation in English. During which they discussed their research sources, synthesising their information to identify the best ideas to answer their research question.

This was an interesting feature of the project as the learners almost universally took this element very seriously. They approached i t in a variety of ways – some recorded a spontaneous discussion whilst others prepared in detail before the recording. Whilst we can argue that those who prepared and even semi-scripted the conversation were not speaking naturally or spontaneously what was clear is that they had spent a considerable time and effort in thinking about what they wished to say, how to express it and how to structure the conversation – a lot of time thinking about using English.

Several learners chose to interview experts at the university as primary sources to help answer their research question. Again, a challenging experience and one that when completed provided a great deal of confidence when speaking in English.

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Reading

The project required each learner to identify, summarise 3 or 4 articles on their specific topics and synthesize this information with that of their team members. There are many reading skills here that were developed that I won’t even get into, in order to keep this as brief as possible.

Many learners identified an improvement in their ability to skim and scan the texts in order to identify the information relevant to their topics. These are skills they are familiar with, and one reason they were able to identify it during reflection, but PBL gave them an opportunity to use and develop these skills in realistic and purposeful situation with longer, ungraded texts.

Interestingly, several learners reported that they chose specific articles after reading abstracts or skimming several texts before choosing the most appropriate ones to address their question. Another useful and important academic skill developed through linguistic skills.

The process of summarising the texts also required careful reading of specific passages and note-taking and paraphrasing, another genuine purpose with motivating outcome.

Additionally, the project was complex with many components and stages. The learners needed to read and follow the documentation on the PBL website to complete the project. By the end of the 14 weeks the website had over 10.000 web page visits which indicated that it was used fairly extensively.

 

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Writing

The culmination of the project was the communication of the answer to the research question with the poster. The process of arriving at this stage required a variety of writing skills from note-taking to academic reverencing.

Another skill which was developed, yet not explicitly recognised by the learners, came in the synthesising of information from the texts they had read and identifying the best ideas and information to answer their research question. This process of identifying main ideas supported with explanations and examples was appropriate to the selection of information for the presentation but also mirrors the planning stages of an academic essay.

We did not ask the learners to produce and essay or report based on their research (this could be a possible future development but would need to be presented as a meaningful outcome such as a conference proceedings) yet their work paralleled this process and the also the process they undertake as part of their Long Writing Assignment in which they answer a question based on information taken from a variety of texts.

This was the part of the project that we asked the teams to record. Listening to the recordings was fantastic – not just because it was nice to hear the learners speaking in English for an

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PBL Season One – The Course Structure

This is a 3 to 4 minute read.

Introduction Poster. Spring 2015. V1

I have written quite a bit about our PBL experience without actually giving much information about the content and organisation of the course. In this post I will provide a brief overview of the cycle which took place over 14 weeks with one class day (Thursday for four 50 minute lessons) per week dedicated to the project.

The project consisted of four distinct phases with clear outcome. Each phase culminated in individual reflection, team reflection and tutorial meeting with the teacher. I will briefly describe the phases below. You can find more information at the SL PBL website which we used to scaffold the project.

*You will notice that there is overlap in the timing of the phases. This allowed teams to start the new phase whilst the team tutorials for the previous phase were taking place. This learner calendar should make it clearer.

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Phase 1 (Weeks 1 to 3)*

This phase consisted of:

– Team formation & team building

– Agreement, amending and signing of team contracts

– Introduction of the overriding Driving Question

– Teams identify areas of individual interest to create refined, team specific Driving Questions

– Identification of research sources to answer the DQ – 3 or 4 per team member. The sources could be written, audio/visual or interviews with experts.

– Individual reflection on the phase

– Team reflection on the phase

– Team tutorial meeting with the teacher

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Phase 2 (Weeks 3 to 6)*

This stage consisted of:

– Individually reading, listening to or interviewing research sources and making notes specific to the Driving Question.

– Group meeting to synthesize the information collated towards answering the Driving Question. At least 10 minutes of this discussion was to be recorded with the discussion being held in English.

– Individual reflection on the phase

– Team reflection on the phase

– Team tutorial meeting with the teacher

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Phase 3 (Weeks 6 to 12)*

This phase consisted of:

– Outlining information required to answer the Driving Question

– Planning and creating a poster to answer the Driving Question

– Planning and rehearsing a presentation to accompany the poster

– Delivering a dress rehearsal poster presentation to learners on the intermediate level course in SL

– Revising poster and presentation following the presentation

– Delivering the final poster presentation at the SL conference.

– Individual reflection on the phase

– Team reflection on the phase

– Team tutorial meeting with the teacher

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Phase 4 (Weeks 12 to 14)*

I consider this to be the most important phase. This phase consisted of:

– Providing team advice for future PBL participants / learners

– Providing team suggestions to improve the next PBL course

– Individual reflection on the whole project

– Team reflection on the whole project

-Team (or individual) tutorials with the teacher

 
Related Posts

PBL Season One – What they said….

Season One – PBL in the School of Languages Context

 

PBL Season One – What they said…..

This is a 3 to 4 minute read.

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Our first Project Based Learning cycle is now complete, fourteen weeks of PBL integrated into our upper level syllabus (my last post here was when we had just begun). There’s obviously a lot to say about the project but for a starter here are some comments from those involved in the PBL experience – the learners, the PBL teachers and other teachers in the School of Languages (SL).

PBL Learners

So let’s start with the most important people, the learners who participated in the PBL project. Here are some of their comments:

“PBL is like a train because it is visiting everywhere its location. It is stopping every place and taking passenger to bring them right place. PBL were taken us where we were and it carried us somewhere that we can realise ourselves.”

“I think this project was a good practice for a lot of things we will face as a student and in the professional career: team work, responsibility, constructive ideas and opinions.”

“I read so much articles and we practice the presentation with my team mates so we speak English a lot so I think it’s improved.”

“It’s percentage should have been more because it includes every type of skill that we need.”

“I loved the presentation day! It was the best memory I got from PBL.”

“I feel good about the presentation because J (a teacher) asked deep questions and we can respond and this gives us confidence. I am proud in doing something practical”

“I wouldn’t change my teammates – because of them I learned so many things.”

“When I saw my poster on the wall [of the SL building] I was very happy”.

“Overall, PBL is a preparation for Proj 102 which is a lesson that we have to pass in next semester (hopefully). I find PBL is very useful. Of course we had face some problems as a group. For example we couldn’t communicate sometimes or we couldn’t reach one person and than we had to postpone our responsibilities. Because of that I felt nervous sometimes, I felt like our task wasn’t going to done until deadline. But we had to find ways to fix these problems and we did it actually. Overall we worked well as a group.I really enjoy the part that we create the poster, finding visuals and putting ideas together was a enjoyable task to do. Also this lesson teached us to how should we find sources or how should we put ideas together. To sum up PBL is a very useful lesson to prepare us to faculty, also now I can use computer more efficiency and I improved my social skills too.”

“Today, we did last lesson of PBL which during the about 10 week. I am happy as well as sad. Firstly, I am happy because PBL finished so, ı feel comfortable. Secondly, ı am sad because every thursday our group work together and we enjoyed it. Sometimes we discuss each other, sometimes we discuss with C*******. I am relaxed by PBL among a lot of stress, exams, PBL gained to me a lot of experiences. I think it is more important than most of lesson.”

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SL Teachers

Some of the learners’ comments refer to the conference. This was the culmination and public presentation of the project. It took place in a public location next to the canteen, at lunchtime, so that all members of the university could visit. During the conference the teams presented their research in the form of poster presentations. Here are some comments from teachers (both PBL teachers and non-PBL teachers) on their experience of the conference:

“The PBL Conference was like a beehive, with student bees working and buzzing together. It was great to see students so happy and excited. It was also great to see how they ‘owned’ their work and felt a sense of collective pride.”

“The PBL presentations were like a miracle because students were motivated to talk in English and the affective filter was very low, which hardly happens in traditional language learning.

“The PBL presentations were like a dream come true: just yesterday someone complained to me about the speaking skills of our students and I was able to say please go and see what they can do at the PBL presentations. And the students lived up to my expectations: they were articulate and enthusiastic. Well done to both instructors and students.”

“The PBL conference was like a festival in the east; full of aromatic scents and interesting ambiance.” “The PBL presentations were very inspiring because it was quite surprising to see how controversial ideas could be convincing when successfully presented visually and explained in a logical way. Well done to all.”

“I had some good authentic discussions. With a bit of encouragement, students were able to evaluate their research results in order to draw conclusions applicable to their own lives.”

“It was refreshing to talk to students about their projects and see how they take pride in their work.”

“I was surprised that almost all groups were very keen to talk and seemed very motivated. Only one or two students seemed to have memorised a sales-patter and only one group did not give the impression that they had gelled as a team. Oh the whole they seemed very proud of their work and Most were able to talk about what they had done and answer questions. When asked they all claimed to have learned a lot from the experience and though it was positive (only in one case did I feel I was being told what he thought I wanted to hear!) Even students I remember from last semester who were never very participative or hardworking seemed very animated and to enjoying showing off their work. I even left feeling quite positively affected by their energy and enthusiasm.. it was a pleasant change to be accosted by students wanting them to look at their work. :)”

“I loved how genuinely the students owned the posters and were able to answer all my questions, and encouraged me to ask more 🙂 Good job guys”

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PBL Teachers

Finally here are some comments from the teachers who delivered PBL. Interestingly, and pleasingly, there is some nice reflection on the Professional Teacher Development opportunities the course presented:

“PBL has been a wonderful strand to have in our curriculum, giving us and the students a highly useful and desirable process-based learning opportunity. It has promoted both learner and teacher autonomy and fostered creativity, critical thinking and reflection within a relatively flexible framework. It has contributed to personal development and team skills in addition to learners’ academic development and knowledge. I loved it! And I know my students did too. I very much hope it will continue to be a key strand in our curriculum.”

“I liked the energy within our PBL team – it was great to meet and share PBL thoughts and experiences in the break with colleagues in rooms close by”

‘’We really didn’t know how the course was going to unfold and exactly how we were going to present it to the students and manage them.  It necessitated a strong reliance on each other as a team and became a real source of motivation.’’

“As the PBL course progressed, the activities showed me just how much students did or didn’t know, and thus how much they needed the opportunity to gain & practice such knowledge. The poster design & presentations were really enjoyed by students, there was a great energy in these activities. This contrasted with the preparation & reflection activities, which often tested students’ organisation, motivation and teamwork to the max. The aim of the course was to promote soft skill development to support students in their lives beyond FDY, and student comments in their feedback reflected this aim. Personally I went on a massive learning curve, and am really happy I got an opportunity to experience this type of learning as it makes total sense to me”

“What was immediately obvious was the paradigm shift in the way we saw our role as teachers. After the first lesson teaching PBL, we met excitedly in the corridor, each discussing what had happened in our classes; this isn’t something that happens when you teach from a coursebook. Not only had it energized us, it had also had an immediate effect on our learners. Much of our talk about that first lesson focused on how the learners were reacting to this ‘new’ way of doing things, how motivated they were and how this would influence the way we would approach these classes.”

Related Posts

Season One – PBL in the School of Languages Context

Interviewing Thom Markham about PBL.

This is a 1 minute read and a 12 mins 5 seconds view.

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In spring 2014 Thom Markham visited Sabancı University School of Languages to advise us on the implementation of PBL.

While he was with us I grabbed a few minutes of his time to ask a few questions. Personally I haven’t been able to bring myself to watch it. Although I was there I can’t remember all we talked about. If you can bare 12 minutes of my hand waving there may be something of interest for you.

This is my text to accompany the video:

Andrew Bosson talks to Thom Markham about the benefits Project Based Learning can bring to teaching and learning and the importance of applying current ideas from the study of psychology to our practice as teachers.

PBL in Action. We have lift off!

This is a 1 to 2 minute read.

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A little over a year ago a I  was a member of a small team that started working on a Project Based Learning module at Sabancı University School of Languages. The project is now live with over  around 160 students in about 40 teams. A team of 10 teachers are facilitating the project.

Much of the literature and experience of PBL is based in K12 schools. The context of our PBL project is a university English language program in which we prepare learners for their English language medium undergraduate studies . Our aim is firstly to develop our learners’ language skills. Secondly, through PBL we wish to develop skills and attributes that will equip our learners for their academic life and future careers.

We also wished to try something different, interesting and challenging both for our learners and for ourselves. It has involved pushing us, again teachers and learners, outside our comfort zones.  In the spirit of PBL we, as a teaching team are embarked on a parallel project to enhance and develop our teaching skills, knowledge and attitudes through the creation, delivery and reflection on the PBL module. This can only lead to interesting outcomes.

The Project has clear goals and outcomes for the learners. However the only thing we can be sure of it that we can’t predict what will ultimately arise from the PBL experience and this is exciting.

A blog, aimed at both teachers and learners, to support the project can be found here. Please be aware that parts of the blog still need a bit of work before they are finished.

In this section … well let’s see what happens.

So farewell then…Google Glass

This is a 2 to 3 minute read.

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So. Farewell then Google Glass, for now at least. In my previous posts I had used the example of GG to discuss the concepts of affordance, normalisation and disruptive innovation. It looks like the first generation of GG failed on these grounds.

Slate suggests that “Google Glass has always been a solution in search of a problem” and that “Glass’ problem is that the technology today simply doesn’t offer anything that average people really want, let alone need, in their everyday lives. At some point in the future, it might. But not anytime soon.” The BBC suggests that one key reason is that people still love their mobile phones. GG just does not do enough things differently – there aren’t any new affordances.

Technology Review, along with the BBC and Slate, mentions that they looked and felt awkward. They also caused a social backlash against the wearers – “glassholes” as some people call them. GG was a long, long way from becoming normalised.

And?

Well this leads me back to the last paragraph of my previous post on the subject. When we use Digital, or any, Technology we should not have a solution in search of a problem.

“This is a reminder for those of us using and implementing Digital Technologies in teaching and learning situations. Just because something is shiny, new and exciting it does not make it fit for purpose. We must have a purpose, a problem to solve or gap to fill – the technology must allow us, or our learners, to do something we couldn’t do before. It may also allow us o do things we could do before but to do them more effectively.

We should certainly experiment and innovate with new tools but keep these thoughts in mind.”

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A final lesson for Educators

It seems that GG is not actually dead – just resting. The designers are going back to the drawing board to hopefully create a product that will offer new affordances to the user and will become normalised.

As teachers we should recognise when a technology is not doing what we want it to do for us or our learners. We should not be afraid to stop, search for alternatives or go back to what we were doing before if it is more effective.

As with GG – we should not, however, be put off experimenting and innovating with new ideas and technologies because the understanding we get from this will help us make better decisions in the future. This can only be good for us and our learners.

That’s enough GG for this blog  and I’m sure next time it will have a different name.

Google Glass and Educational Technology

 

This is a 2 to 3 minute read.

Apologies if you were looking for a groundbreaking post on the uses of Google Glass in Teaching. This post revisits a previous post on innovative uses of Digital Technology in education.

 

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A while ago I wrote about the innovative use of technology in teaching and learning through 3 concepts: Affordance, Normalisation & Disruptive Innovation – I won’t go into them again here but you can always reread the original entry. In that post I initially discussed Google Glass(es) as a new technology waiting to be innovated with (if this is an appropriate term!)

A  Guardian review of the newly released GG gives the product a 3 out of 5. This probably not a bad rating for the first version of a totally new product but it also provides another opportunity to explore the concepts of Affordance, Normalisation and Disruptive Innovation. The review is not too long and worth a read but I am primarily basing the rest of this page on the concluding pros and cons.

From this, single, review we could form these general conclusions.

Affordances:

– It has a heads-up display – great for industries & situations where hands-free access to information is crucial

– Although it doesn’t have a ‘killer app’ yet it does have some like the Star Chart that take advantage of the heads-up design.

Normalisation:

– At the moment it is not normalised, but in these early days it is not perhaps surprising. The reviewer notes that from the looks he got from people when he was using GG demonstrate that they are not yet socially acceptable (definitely not normalised).

Disruptive Innovation:

– At the moment they do not do anything that a smartwatch or smartphone can do at a cheaper price, as a commentator on the page noted “it doesn’t solve a problem” yet.

 

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Undoubtedly things will improve quickly as people use and innovate with GG – as teenagers did with SMS. Also as future models improve on this one – think of how any technology that has been around for more than 5 years has developed.

But as things stand we could see GG as being in the pre-teenager phase of SMS. A product with potential for Disruptive Innovation and obvious Affordances that still need to be exploited and innovated to find real purposes before its becomes a Normalised and accepted technology.

 

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So, how does this relate to teaching and learning?

This is a reminder for those of us using and implementing Digital Technologies in teaching and learning situations. Just because something is shiny, new and exciting it does not make it fit for purpose. We must have a purpose, a problem to solve or gap to fill – the technology must allow us, or our learners, to do something we couldn’t do before. It may also allow us o do things we could do before but to do them more effectively.

We should certainly experiment and innovate with new tools but keep these thoughts in mind.

 

 

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Google Glass and Educational Technology by A Bosson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.